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article number 356
article date 07-01-2014
copyright 2014 by Author else SaltOfAmerica
Change on the Range, a 1960 Livestock Pictorial
by Robert O. Gilden and F. G. Renner

From ‘Power to Produce,’ the USDA annual yearbook of 1960.

Great changes have been taking place in equipment and structures that are essential in the production of livestock. Now one seldom sees a new barn for work horses or mules, or new bank barns, smokehouses, springhouses, windmills, corncribs. Many new loose-housing systems with pole barns and milking parlors, paved feed yards, bunker silos, crop driers, and feed grinding and mixing plants appear in surprising variety.

New types of farmsteads are appearing, such as thousand-cow dairies, pig nurseries, large custom-feed yards for cattle, and multi-thousand-bird broiler and laying establishments.

Materials uncommon 50 years ago, such as concrete blocks, pressure-treated, laminated, and processed wood, lightweight galvanized steel and aluminum sheets, insulation, and plastics provide new opportunities for building design.

The farmstead in the picture above is near Walworth, Wisconsin.
The photograph above, taken in 1916, shows part of a large ranch near Bath, South Dakota.
Of all the changes, the improvements in housing and feeding dairy cattle and in milking and handling milk are as kenspeckle as any. Cows may loaf in a 100-foot barn and be milked in a 40-foot parlor nearby.
A pre-engineered “package” milking room is used with loose-housing systems.
A pie-shaped corral dairy layout in California has a milking facility at the hub to ease the movement of cows between the corral and the milking room. Feed bunks around the perimeter are filled easily from a self-unloading wagon. Beyond the perimeter is a storage for baled hay.
On the Jones farm near Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, a modern system for feeding silage uses a large-diameter silo with mechanical unloader and a covered bunk feeder with auger distribution. A tractor with a front-end loader is used to clean the paved lot.
On the Jones farm, a man pushes a button on the silo wall . . .
. . . and an auger starts the feed on its way to cows.
Chester DeBoer’s farm near Hull, Iowa, has no pasture for his 80 head of dairy cattle, which are fed roughage the year around (with some baled hay for young animals) from four structures. The Harvestore and silo at the left store grass, corn silage, soft corn, or grain sorghums. The slatted structures, whose gates can be raised and lowered, are hay driers for self-feeding chopped legume hay.
The cows in the picture below are being sprayed to control insects and diseases.
Sanitation is a constant watchword. Water sprays in the pavement in the picture above wash the udders before the cows enter the milking stalls.
For hosing the milking room, water pressure is raised to about 85 pounds per square inch with a booster pump.
Up-to-date methods for removing manure include tractors with scoops or blades.
Automatic cleaning, comfortable stalls, exhaust fans, and draft-free ventilating windows mean cleanliness, higher production, and better working conditions.
In the herringbone milking parlor, cows stand so close together that each udder is 3 feet from the next and within easy reach of the operator. Time spent in milking is greatly reduced. Feed chutes are above the cows.
From the udder, the milk goes directly through a pipeline to a bulk tank.
The photograph above, taken on a dairy farm near Anoka, Minnesota, shows a bulk tank, compressor, milk releaser, milk pipeline, milk pump, and automatic cleaning machine.
Milk is bottled in a large plant.
For beef cattle, this modern, mechanized, paved feedlot operation has a capacity of 200 to 300 head.. The actual feeding time is 20 to 30 minutes, depending on the amount of grain with the silage.
The self-feeder silo eliminates farmstead handling of silage. The animals take their places in a circle without fuss.
This feeding barn for beef cattle is 50 by 180 by 12 feet and has a canopy 10 feet high. It can accommodate 300 head. Wells often are the only source of water in sections where there are no living streams and rainfall is scanty or irregular.
This feeding barn has a 5,000-gallon storage tank and provides water for three pastures.
Hogs are housed in clean, airy, efficient buildings. The picture above shows one of many new types. Raising hogs in confined quarters is a growing practice.
The farmer designed this pen arrangement with the plan of finishing 2 thousand hogs a year.
This automatic hog finishing facility—dubbed “hogomatic”—is equipped to feed the pigs and clean the floor under full automatic control.
Cleaning is done with two jets of water under 70 pounds of pressure. The revolving boom circles the 21.5-foot exercise area every 2.5 minutes. A 4-inch center drain carries the wastes away.
An automatic hammer mill with a high-pressure pneumatic conveying system prepares and distributes a complete mixed feed in the “hogomatic.” Pressure switches in the various hog feeders served by this mill will start the mill and route the feed to the feeder through a system of relays and feed line valves.
Bulk feed tanks, conveniently located, save many steps in handling feed. These three tanks supply the automatic grinding mill.
Ground feed is supplied to the hog feeder through a 1-inch pipe. The feed is deposited in a small hopper and distributed by means of an auger from it to the feeding trough.
Another feeding system. In this minimum-stress pen, the shape of the guardrail encourages the sow to lie with the teats toward the pigs. The pigs stay where it’s warm—under the heat lamp and behind a guard. The floor is insulated.
Another view of the minimum-stress hog house. Pigs stay in the same pen from birth until they reach market weight. Feed is distributed by an auger overhead.
Hogs in double-deck, all-steel, cage-type farrowing stalls. The pigs are transferred after weaning. Manure is removed by mechanical drags.
This farrowing room, 12 by 64 feet, is in an all-steel, pole-type, prefabricated structure. It has glass-fiber insulation with vapor barrier of vinyl sheets, radiant-type supplemental heat, and power ventilation.
Another system is used on a farm near Brook, Indiana. Floors of pens slope toward a cleaner outside the pens. The cleaner carries the semi-liquid manure to the spreader at the touch of a button.
A well-planned layout of pens, chutes, and loading facilities contributes greatly to the efficiency of the sheep-raising enterprise.
This picture, which was taken in February 1960, shows a sheepherder’s camp of the type generally found in the West. It is a reminder that men, horses, and dogs still have a place in a world of pushbuttons.
George B. Sweet, Gaithersburg, Maryland, put up this prefabricated, 5,000-hen laying house in 1960. The pole-frame, windowless building, 45 by 140 feet, with stressed-skin exterior plywood wall and roof panels, has a fan and pad-type evaporative cooling system for summer, a unique push-pull air recirculation system for ventilation in winter, and separate feed and egg rooms.
For warmth in winter and coolness in summer, the 120-foot solar poultry house on a farm near Waterville, Iowa, has south-facing insulated windows and an overhang for shade in summer.
Floyd Smith, Wauseon, Ohio, shows how dry the litter is in his poultry house when temperatures were below zero outside and about 55° inside. The insulated windows make the most of the wintertime sunshine to reduce moisture and keep temperature even.
The pole-type, prefabricated-steel laying house pictured below has a slat floor, mechanized feeder, fiberglass insulation, and an interior lining of corrugated galvanized steel sheets sealed with mastic as a vapor barrier. A central ridge ventilator with turnabout fans supply up to 6 c.f.m. per bird. The building, 48 by 64 feet, has an egg and work room 12 by 32 feet.
This structure was originally a windbreaker, 20 by 50 feet. Additional arches were added later to make it a shed.
On a farm near Edgar, Nebraska, machines are kept at one end of a frameless steel building. The rest is partitioned to make storage for corn.
On a farm near Logansport, Indiana, a pole-type prefabricated-steel shed, 48 by 64 feet, houses farm machinery and a light plane.
The frameless, straight-wall building is used for storing grain on a farm near Cozad, Nebraska. It measures 52 by 100 feet. Its wide doors would permit its use later for storage of machinery.
A self-feeder hay barn is designed to dry the chopped hay in storage, eliminate the need to handle hay at the farmstead, and insure good quality of the forage.
A grain bin auger, operated automatically, permits the almost complete unloading of flat-bottomed bins.
A three-man farm crew, with no special equipment, easily puts the roof—of prefabricated, stressed-skin, exterior plywood panels, each 4 by 24 feet—on a poultry laying house. The finished structure was pictured on a previous page.
Another type of construction uses laminated glued rafters.
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