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  < Back to Table Of Contents  < Back to Topic: Blue Collar Recipes and Cooking Methods

article number 400
article date 12-02-2014
copyright 2014 by Author else SaltOfAmerica
Your Soup Recipes of 1881
by Maria Parloa, Principle, School of Cooking, Boston

From the 1881 book, Miss Parloa’s New Cook Book and Marketing Guide.

EDITORS NOTE: Some recipes given in the book have been removed to reduce the size of this article. This article is decorated with drawings from the “Kitchen Furnishing” chapter which will be the next article in this series.

Remarks on Soup Stock

There are a number of methods of making soup stocks, and no two will give exactly the same results. One of the simplest and most satisfactory is that of clear stock or bouillon. By this the best flavor of the meat is obtained, for none passes off in steam, as when the meat is boiled rapidly.

The second mode is in boiling the stock a great deal, to reduce it. This gives a very rich soup, with a marked difference in the flavor from that made with clear meat kept in water at the boiling point.

The third way leaves a mixed stock, which will not be clear unless whites of eggs are used.

In following the first methods we buy clear beef specially for the stock, and know from the beginning just how much stock there will be when the work is completed.

By the second method we are not sure, because more or less than we estimate may boil away.

The third stock, being made from bones and pieces of meat left from roasts, and from the trimmings of raw meats, will always be changeable in color, quantity and quality. This is, however, a very important stock, and it should always be kept on hand.

No household, even where only a moderate amount of meat is used, should be without a stock-pot. It can be kept on the back of the range or stove while cooking is going on. Two or three times a week it should be put on with the trimmings and bones left from cooked and uncooked meats. This practice will give a supply of stock at all times, which will be of the greatest value in making sauces, side dishes and soups.

Meat if only slightly tainted will spoil a stock therefore great care must be taken that every particle is perfectly sweet.

Vegetables make a stock sour very quickly, so if you wish to keep a stock do not use them. Many rules advise putting vegetables into the stock-pot with the meat and water and cooking from the very beginning. When this is done they absorb the fine flavor of the meat and give the soup a rank taste. They should cook not more than an hour—the last hour—in the stock.

A white stock is made with veal or poultry. The water in which a leg of mutton or fowl have been boiled makes a good stock for light soups and gravies.

A soup stock must be cooled quickly or it will not keep well. In winter any kind of stock ought to keep good a week. That boiled down to a jelly will last the longest. In the warm months three days will be the average time stock will keep.

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Five pounds of clear beef, cut from the lower part of the round; five quarts of cold water.

Let come to a boil, slowly; skim carefully, and set where it will keep just at the boiling point for eight or ten hours. Strain, and set away to cool.

In the morning skim off all the fat and turn the soup into the kettle, being careful not to let the sediment pass in. Into the soup put an onion, one stalk of celery, two leaves of sage, two sprigs of parsley, two of thyme, two of summer savory, two bay leaves, twelve pepper-corns and six whole cloves.

Boil gently from ten to twenty minutes; salt and pepper to taste. Strain through an old napkin. This is now ready for serving as a simple clear soup or for the foundation of all kinds of clear soups.

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Put the trimmings of your fresh meats and the bones and tough pieces left from roasts or broils into the soup pot with one quart of water to every two pounds of meat and bones. When it comes to a boil, skim and set back where it will simmer six hours ; then add a bouquet of sweet herbs, one onion, six cloves and twelve pepper-corns to each gallon of stock.

Cook two hours longer; strain and set in a cool place. In the morning skim off the fat. Keep in a very cool place.

This can be used for common soups, sauces, and where stock is used in made dishes. It should always be kept on hand, as it really costs nothing but the labor (which is very little), and enters so often into the preparation of simple, yet toothsome, dishes.

Scotch Kettle.

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- Eight pounds of a shin of veal,
- eight pounds of the lower part of the round of beef,
- half a cupful of butter,
- twelve quarts of cold water,
- half a small carrot,
- two large onions,
- half a head of celery,
- thirty pepper-corns,
- six whole cloves,
- a small piece each of mace and cinnamon,
- four sprigs each of parsley,
- sweet marjoram,
- summer savory and thyme,
- four leaves of sage,
- four bay leaves,
- about one ounce of ham.

Put half of the butter in the soup pot and then put in the meat, which has been cut into very small pieces. Stir over a hot fire until the meat begins to brown; then add one quart of the water, and cook until there is a thick glaze on the bottom of the kettle (this will be about an hour).

Add the remainder of the water and let it come to a boil. Skim carefully, and set back where it will simmer for six hours.

Fry the vegetables, which have been cut very small, in the remaining butter for half an hour, being careful not to burn them. When done, turn into the soup pot, and at the same time add the herbs and spice. Cook one hour longer; salt to taste and strain.

Set in a very cold place until morning, when skim off all the fat.

Turn the soup into the pot, being careful not to turn in the sediment, and set on the fire. Beat the whites and shells of two eggs with one cup of cold water. Stir into the soup, and when it comes to a boil, set back where it will simmer for twenty minutes.

Strain through a napkin, and if not ready to use, put away in a cold place. This will keep a week in winter, but not more than three days in summer. It is a particularly nicely-flavored soup, and is the foundation for any clear soup, the soup taking the name of the solid used with it, as consommé au Riz, Consommé with Macaroni, etc.

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Bouillon, for Germans and other parties, is made the same as the clear stock, using a pint of water to the pound of meat, and seasoning with salt and pepper and with the spice, herbs and vegetables or not, as you please. It should be remembered that the amount of seasoning in the recipe referred to is for one gallon of stock.

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- Six pounds of a shin of veal,
- one fowl,
- three table-spoonfuls of butter,
- four stalks of celery,
- two onions,
- one blade of mace,
- one stick of cinnamon,
- eight quarts of cold water,
- salt,
- pepper.

Wash and cut the veal and fowl into small pieces. Put the butter in the bottom of the soup pot and then put in the meat. Cover, and cook gently (stirring often) half an hour, then add the water. Let it come to a boil, then skim and set back where it will boil gently for six hours.

Add the vegetables and spice and boil one hour longer. Strain and cool quickly.

In the morning take off all the fat. Then turn the jelly gently into a deep dish, and with a knife, scrape off the sediment which is on the bottom. Put the jelly into a stone pot and set in a cold place.

This will keep a week in cold weather and three days in warm.

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Two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt.

Beat eggs with a spoon, and add milk and salt. Turn into a buttered cup, and place in a pan of warm water. Cook in a slow oven until firm in the centre. Set away to cool.

Cut into small and prettily-shaped pieces; put into the tureen, and pour one quart of boiling consomme or clear stock on it.

Dover Egg Beater.

Soup Recipes

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- One hare,
- one grouse,
- four onions,
- one small carrot,
- four slices of turnip,
- a bouquet of sweet herbs,
- three table-spoonfuls of rice flour,
- four table-spoonfuls of butter,
- half a cupful of stale bread,
- half a cupful of milk,
- one egg,
- six quarts of water.

Wash the grouse and hare and put to boil in the six quarts of cold water. When this comes to a boil, skim, and set back where it will simmer for one hour. Then take out the hare and grouse and cut all the meat from the bones. Return the bones to the soup and simmer two hours longer.

Cut the meat into handsome pieces, roll in flour, and fry in the butter till a rich brown. Set aside for the present.

Slice the onions, and fry in the butter in which the meat was fried; when brown, add to the soup.

Make force-meat balls of the livers of the hare and grouse (which have been boiled one hour in the stock), the egg, bread and milk. Boil the bread and milk together until a smooth paste. Mash the livers with a strong spoon, then add bread and milk and the egg, unbeaten. Season well with pepper and salt and, if you like, with a little lemon juice.

Shape into small balls and fry in either chicken fat or butter. Put these into the soup twenty minutes before dishing.

Have the turnip and carrot cut into small pieces and cooked one hour in clear water. When the bones and the Onions have simmered two hours, strain and return to the soup pot. Add the fried meat and vegetables. Mix the rice flour with a cupful of cold water; add to the soup, season with salt and pepper, simmer ten minutes.

Add force-meat balls and simmer twenty minutes longer.

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One and a half cupfuls of flour,
- one pint of rich cream,
- four table-spoonfuls of butter,
- four of grated Parmesan cheese,
- a speck of cayenne,
- two eggs,
- three quarts of clear soup stock.

Mix flour, cream, butter, cheese and pepper together. Place the basin in another of hot water and stir until the mixture becomes a smooth, firm paste.

Break into it the two eggs, and mix quickly and thoroughly. Cook two minutes longer, and set away to cool.

When cold, roll into little balls about the size of an American walnut. When the balls are all formed, drop them into boiling water and cook gently five minutes; then put them in the soup tureen and pour the boiling stock on them.

Pass a plate of finely grated Parmesan cheese with the soup.

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One quart of the sediment which is left from the clear stock,
- one quart of water,
- one-fourth of a cupful of pearl barley,
- one good-sized white turnip,
- one carrot,
- half a head of celery,
- two onions,
- about two pounds of cabbage,
- three potatoes, salt and pepper.

Wash the barley and put it on in the quart of water, and simmer gently for two hours. Then add all the vegetables (except the potatoes), cut very fine, and the quart of stock. Boil gently for one hour and a half, then add the potatoes and the salt and pepper. Cook thirty minutes longer.

When there is no stock, take two pounds of beef and two quarts of water. Cook beef, barley and water two hours, and add the vegetables as before.

The meat can be served with the soup or as a separate dish.

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- One chicken or fowl weighing three pounds,
- three pounds of veal,
- two large onions,
- two large slices of carrot,
- four stalks of celery,
- three large table-spoonfuls of butter,
- one table-spoonful of curry powder,
- four of flour,
- salt,
- pepper,
- five quarts of water.

Take two table-spoonfuls of the fat from the opening in the chicken and put in the soup pot. As soon as melted, put in the vegetables, which have been cut very fine. Let all cook together for twenty minutes, stirring frequently, that it may not burn; then add the veal, cut into small pieces.

Cook fifteen minutes longer; then add the whole chicken and the water. Cover, and let it come to a boil. Skim, and set back where it will simmer for four hours (in the mean time taking out the chicken when it is tender).

Now put the butter into a small frying-pan, and when hot, add the dry flour. Stir until a rich brown; then take from the fire and add the curry powder. Stir this mixture into the soup, and let it cook half an hour longer; then strain through a sieve, rinse out the soup pot and return the strained soup to it.

Add salt and pepper and the chicken (which has been freed from the bones and skin and cut into small pieces) ; simmer very gently thirty minutes. Skim off any fat that may rise to the top, and serve.

This soup is served with plain boiled rice in a separate dish or with small squares of fried or toasted bread. The rice can be served in the soup if you choose.

Steamer For Pot.

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One can of green turtle, such as is put up by the “Merriam Packing Co.”

Separate the green fat from the other contents of the can, cut into dice and set aside.

Put one quart of water with the remainder of the turtle; add twelve pepper-corns, six whole cloves, two small sprigs each of parsley, summer savory, sweet marjoram and thyme, two bay leaves, two leaves of sage. Have the herbs tied together.

Put one large onion, one slice of carrot, one of turnip, and a stalk of celery, cut fine, into a pan, with two large tablespoonfuls of butter. Fry fifteen minutes, being careful not to burn. Skim carefully from the butter and put into the soup.

Now, into the butter in which the vegetables were fried, put two table-spoonfuls of dry flour, and cook until brown. Stir into the soup; season with salt and pepper and let simmer very gently one hour. Strain, skim off all the fat and serve with thin slices of lemon, egg or force-meat balls, and the green fat.

The lemon should have a very thin rind; should be put into the tureen and the soup poured over it. Cooking the lemon in this or any other soup often gives it a bitter taste.

If the soup is wished quite thick, add a table-spoonful of butter to that in which the vegetables were cooked, and use three table-spoonfuls of flour instead of two.

Many people use wine in this soup, but it is delicious without. In case you do use wine there should not be more than four table-spoonfuls to this quantity.

If you desire the soup extremely rich, use a quart of rich soup stock.

The green turtles are so very large that it is only in great establishments that they are available, and for this reason a rule for preparing the live turtle is not given. Few housekeepers would ever see one.

The cans contain not what is commonly called turtle soup, but the meat of the turtle, boiled, and the proper proportions of lean meat, yellow and green fat put together. They cost fifty cents each, and a single can will make soup enough for six persons.

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A pint of black beans, soaked over-night in three quarts of water. In the morning pour off this water, and add three quarts of fresh. Boil gently six hours. When done, there should be one quart.

Add a quart of stock, six whole cloves, six whole allspice, a small piece of mace, a small piece of cinnamon, stalk of celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs, also one good-sized onion and one small slice each of turnip and carrot, all cut fine and fried in three tablespoonfuls of butter.

Into the butter remaining in the pan put a spoonful of flour, and cook until brown. Add to soup, and simmer all together one hour. Season with salt and pepper, and rub through a fine sieve. Serve with slices of lemon and egg balls, the lemon to be put in the tureen with the soup.

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Two pounds of the scraggy part of a neck of mutton. Cut the meat from the bones, and cut off all the fat. Then cut meat into small pieces and put into soup pot with one large slice of turnip, two of carrot, one onion and a stalk of celery, all cut fine, half a cup of barley and three pints of cold water. Simmer gently two hours.

On to the bones put one pint of water; simmer two hours, and strain upon the soup. Cook a table-spoonful of flour and one of butter together until perfectly smooth; stir into soup, and add a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Season with salt and pepper.

French Frying-Pan.

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- One cold roast chicken,
- two quarts of stock (any kind),
- one of water,
- quarter of a pound of salt pork,
- one quart of green okra,
- an onion, salt,
- pepper,
- three table-spoonfuls of flour.

Cut the okra pods into small pieces. Slice the pork and onion. Fry the pork, and then add the onion and okra. Cover closely, and fry half an hour.

Cut all the meat from the chicken. Put the bones on with the water.

Add the okra and onion, first being careful to press out all the pork fat possible. Into the fat remaining put the flour, and stir until it becomes a rich brown; add this to the other ingredients.

Cover the pot, and simmer three hours; then rub through a sieve, and add the stock, salt and pepper and the meat of the chicken, cut into small pieces. Simmer gently twenty minutes.

Serve with a dish of boiled rice.

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- The bones of two roasted grouse and the breast of one,
- a quart of any kind of stock, or pieces and bones of cold roasts;
- three quarts of cold water,
- two slices of turnip,
- two of carrot,
- two large onions,
- two cloves,
vtwo stalks of celery,
- a bouquet of sweet herbs,
- three table-spoonfuls of butter,
- three of flour.

Cook the grouse bones in three quarts of water four hours. The last hour add the vegetables and the cloves; then strain, and return to the fire with the quart of stock.

Cook the butter and the flour together until a rich brown, and then turn into the stock.

Cut the breast of the grouse into very small pieces and add to the soup.

Season with salt and pepper and simmer gently half an hour. If there is any fat on the soup, skim it off.

Serve with fried bread. When bones and meat are used instead of the stock, use one more quart of water, and cook them with the grouse bones.

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- Half a pint of green peas,
- half a pint of cauliflower,
- one pint of turnip, carrot, celery and string beans (all the four vegetables being included in the pint),
- half a cupful of tomato,
- half a pint of asparagus heads,
- two quarts of soup stock—any kind will do;
- three table-spoonfuls of butter,
- three tablespoonfuls of flour,
- and salt and pepper.

Cook all the vegetables, except the peas and tomato, in water to cover one hour. Cook butter and dry flour together until smooth, but not brown; stir into the stock, which has been heated to the boiling point.

Now add the tomato and simmer gently fifteen minutes; then strain. Add the peas and cooked vegetables to the strained soup, and simmer again for thirty minutes. Serve small slices of toasted bread in a separate dish.

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- The giblets from two or three fowl or chickens,
- any kind of stock, or if there are remains of the roast chickens, use these;
- one large onion,
- two slices of carrot,
- one of turnip,
- two stalks of celery,
- two quarts of water,
- one of stock,
- two large table-spoonfuls of butter,
- two of flour,
- salt,
- pepper.

Put the giblets on to boil in the two quarts of water, and boil gently until reduced to one quart (it will take about two hours); then take out the giblets.

Cut all the hard, tough parts from the gizzards, and put hearts, livers and gizzards together and chop rather coarse. Return them to the liquor in which they were boiled, and add the quart of stock.

Have the vegetables cut fine, and fry them in the butter until they are very tender (about fifteen minutes), but be careful they do not burn; then add the dry flour to them and stir until the flour browns. Turn this mixture into the soup, and season with pepper and salt.

Cook gently half an hour and serve with toasted bread.

If the chicken bones are used, put them on to boil in three quarts of water, and boil the giblets with them. When you take out the giblets, strain the stock through a sieve and return to the pot; then proceed as before.


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Boil a large fowl in three quarts of water until tender (the water should never more than bubble).

Skim off the fat, and add a teacupful of rice, and, also, a slice of carrot, one of turnip, a small piece of celery and an onion, which have been cooked slowly for fifteen minutes in two large tablespoonfuls of butter. Skim this butter carefully from the vegetables, and into the pan in which it is, stir a table-spoonful of flour.

Cook until smooth, but not brown. Add this, as well as a small piece of cinnamon and of mace, and four whole cloves. Cook all together slowly for two hours.

Chop and pound the breast of the fowl very fine. Rub the soup through a fine sieve; add the pounded breast and again rub the whole through the sieve.

Put back on the fire and add one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt, a fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper and a pint of cream, which has come just to a boil. Boil up once and serve.

This is a delicious soup.

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- One quart can of tomato,
- two heaping table-spoonfuls of flour,
- one of butter,
- one teaspoonful of salt,
- one of sugar,
- a pint of hot water.

Let tomato and water come to a boil. Rub flour, butter and a table-spoonful of tomato together. Stir into boiling mixture, add seasoning, boil all together fifteen minutes, rub through a sieve, and serve with toasted bread. This bread should first be cut in thin slices; should be buttered, cut into little squares, placed in a pan, buttered side up, and browned in a quick oven.

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- A quart can of tomato,
- three pints of milk,
- a large table-spoonful of flour,
- butter the size of an egg,
- pepper and salt to taste,
- a scant teaspoonful of soda.

Put the tomato on to stew, and the milk in a double kettle to boil, reserving however, half a cupful to mix with flour. Mix the flour smoothly with this cold milk, stir into the boiling milk, and cook ten minutes.

To the tomato add the soda; stir well, and rub through a strainer that is fine enough to keep back the seeds. Add butter, salt and pepper to the milk, and then the tomato.

Serve immediately. If half the rule is made, stir the tomato well in the can before dividing, as the liquid portion is the more acid.

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- One quart of milk,
- six large onions,
- yolks of four eggs,
- three table-spoonfuls of butter,
- a large one of flour,
- one cupful of cream,
- salt,
- pepper.

Put the butter in a frying-pan. Cut the onions into thin slices and drop in the butter. Stir until they begin to cook; then cover tight and set back where they will simmer, but not burn, for half an hour.

Now put the milk on to boil, and then add the dry flour to the onions, and stir constantly for three minutes over the fire. Then turn the mixture into the milk and cook fifteen minutes.

Rub the soup through a strainer, return to the fire, season with salt and pepper.

Beat the yokes of the eggs well; add the cream to them and stir into the soup. Cook three minutes, stirring constantly. If you have no cream, use milk, in which case add a table-spoonful of butter at the same time.

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- A quart of milk,
- six large potatoes,
- one stalk of celery,
- an onion and
- a table-spoonful of butter.

Put milk to boil with onion and celery. Pare potatoes and boil thirty minutes. Turn off the water, and mash fine and light. Add boiling milk and the butter, and pepper and salt to taste. Rub through a strainer and serve immediately.

A cupful of whipped cream, added when in the tureen, is a great improvement. This soup must not be allowed to stand, not even if kept hot.

Served as soon as ready, it is excellent.

Apple Parer.

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Two pounds of pumpkin. Take out seeds and pare off the rind.

Cut into small pieces, and put into a stew-pan with half a pint of water.

Simmer slowly an hour and a half, then rub through a sieve and put back on the fire with one and a half pints of boiling milk, butter the size of an egg, one tea-spoonful of sugar, salt and pepper to taste, and three slices of stale bread, cut into small squares.

Stir occasionally; and when it boils, serve.

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- A pint of milk,
- a table-spoonful of flour,
- one of butter,
- a head of celery,
- a large slice of onion and
- small piece of mace.

Boil celery in a pint of water from thirty to forty-five minutes; boil mace, onion and milk together.

Mix flour with two table-spoonfuls of cold milk, and add to boiling milk. Cook ten minutes. Mash celery in the water in which it has been cooked, and stir into boiling milk. Add, butter, and season with salt and pepper to taste.

Strain and serve immediately. The flavor is improved by adding a cupful of whipped cream when the soup is in the tureen.

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- One quart of white stock,
- one pint of cream or milk,
- one onion,
- two stalks of celery,
- one-third of a cupful of tapioca,
- two cupfuls of cold water,
- one table-spoonful of butter,
- a small piece of mace,
- salt,
- pepper.

Wash the tapioca, and soak over night in cold water.

Cook it and the stock together, very gently, for one hour. Cut the onion and celery into small pieces, and put on to cook for twenty minutes with the milk and mace. Strain on the tapioca and stock.

Season with salt and pepper, add butter, and serve.

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- A tea-cupful of barley, well washed;
- three pints of chicken stock,
- an onion and
- a small piece each of mace and cinnamon.

Cook slowly together five hours; then rub through a sieve, and add one and a half pints of boiling cream or milk.

If milk, add also two table-spoonfuls of butter. Salt and pepper to taste.

The yolks of four eggs, beaten with four table-spoonfuls of milk, and cooked a minute in the boiling milk or cream, makes the soup very much richer.

Quart Measure.

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- One quart of milk,
- two large onions,
- three eggs,
- two tablespoonfuls of butter,
- two of flour,
- salt,
- pepper,
- two table-spoonfuls of grated cheese.

Put milk on to boil. Fry the butter and onions together for eight minutes; then add dry flour, and cook two minutes longer, being careful not to burn. Stir into the milk, and cook ten minutes. Rub through a strainer, and return to the fire.

Now add the cheese. Beat the eggs, with a speck of pepper and half a teaspoonful of salt. Season the soup with salt and pepper.

Hold the colander over the soup and pour the eggs through, upon the butter, and set back for three minutes where it will not boil. Then serve. The cheese may be omitted if it is not liked.

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- A quart of milk,
- one of oysters,
- a head of celery,
- a small onion,
- half a cupful of butter,
- half a cupful of powdered cracker,
- one teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce,
- a speck of cayenne and salt and pepper to taste.

Chop onion and celery fine. Put on to boil with milk for twenty minutes. Then strain, and add the butter, cracker, oyster liquor, (which has been boiled and skimmed), and finally the seasoning and oysters. Cook three minutes longer, and serve.

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- Meat of a small lobster, chopped fine;
- three crackers, rolled fine,
- butter—size of an egg,
- salt and pepper to taste and
- a speck of cayenne.

Mix all in the same pan, and add, gradually, a pint of boiling milk, stirring all the while. Boil up once, and serve.

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- Twenty-five small clams,
- one quart of milk,
- half a cupful of butter,
- one table-spoonful of chopped parsley,
- three potatoes,
- two large table-spoonfuls of flour,
- salt, pepper.

The clams should be chopped fine and put into a colander to drain.

Pare the potatoes, and chop rather fine. Put them on to boil with the milk, in a double kettle.

Rub the butter and flour together until perfectly creamy, and when the milk and potatoes have been boiling fifteen minutes, stir this in, and cook eight minutes more. Add the parsley, pepper and salt, and cook three minutes longer.

Now add the clams. Cook one minute longer, and serve. This gives a very delicate soup, as the liquor from the clams is not used.

Potato Slicer.

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- Five pounds of any kind of fish, (the light salt-water fish is the best),
- half a pound of pork,
- two large onions,
- one quart of sliced potatoes,
- one quart of water,
- one pint of milk,
- two table-spoonfuls of flour,
- six crackers,
- salt,
- pepper.

Skin the fish, and cut all the flesh from the bones.

Put the bones on to cook in the quart of water, and simmer gently ten minutes.

Fry the pork; then add the onions, cut into slices. Cover, and cook five minutes; then add the flour, and cook eight minutes longer, stirring often.

Strain on this the water in which the fish bones were cooked and boil gently for five minutes; then strain all on the potatoes and fish.

Season with salt and pepper, and simmer fifteen minutes. Add the milk and the crackers, which were first soaked for three minutes in the milk. Let it boil up once, and serve. The milk may be omitted, and a pint of tomatoes used, if you like.

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Cut enough green corn from the cob to make a quart; pare and slice one quart of potatoes; pare and slice two onions.

Cut half a pound of pork in slices, and fry until brown; then take up, and fry the onions in the fat.

Put the potatoes and corn into the kettle in layers, sprinkling each layer with salt, pepper and flour. Use half a teaspoonful of pepper, one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt and three of flour.

Place the gravy strainer on the vegetables, and turn the onions and pork fat into it, and with a spoon press the juice through; then slowly pour one and one-fourth quarts of boiling water through the strainer, rubbing as much onion through as possible.

Take out the strainer, cover the kettle, and boil gently for twenty minutes.

Mix three table-spoonfuls of flour with a little milk, and when perfectly smooth, add a pint and a half of rich milk. Stir this into the boiling chowder. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and if it is not, add more pepper and salt. Then add six crackers, split and dipped for a minute in cold water.

Put on the cover, boil up once, and serve.


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Boil four quarts of consommé rapidly until reduced to one quart. Turn into small jars, and cool quickly. This will keep for a month in a cool, dry place. It is used for soups and sauces and for glazing meats.

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A preparation for flavoring and coloring soups and sauces comes in small tin boxes.

In each box there are twelve little squares, which look very much like chocolate caramels. One of these will give two quarts of soup the most delicious flavor and a rich color.

The paste should not be cooked with the soup, but put into the tureen, and the soup poured over it; and as the soup is served, stir with the ladle. If you let it boil with the clear soup the flavor will not be as fine and the soup not as clear.

It may be used with any dark or clear soup, even when already seasoned. It is for sale in Boston by S. S. Pierce and McDewell & Adams; New York: Park, Tilford & Co., retail, E. C. Hayward & Co., 192-4 Chamber Street, wholesale; Philadelphia: Githens & Rexsame’s; Chicago: Rockwood Bros., 102 North Clark street; St. Louis: David Nicholson. The paste costs only twenty-five cents per box.

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Boil four eggs ten minutes. Drop into cold water, and when cool remove the yolks. Pound these in a mortar until reduced to a paste, and then beat them with a teaspoonful of salt, a speck of pepper and the white of one raw egg.

Form in balls about the size of a walnut. Roll in flour, and fry brown in butter or chicken fat, being careful not to burn.

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Cut stale bread into dice, and fry in boiling fat until brown. It will take about half a minute. The fat must be smoking in the centre when the bread is put into it.

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